Meet five all stars who left a lasting impact on the outdoor scene in 2008.Lady in the WaterKATIE SPOTZInstead of celebrating her college graduation with parties and a carefree summer, Katie Spotz became the first person to swim the entire 352-mile Allegheny River. The month-long swim through upstate New York and Pennsylvania benefited Blue Planet Run Foundation, a charity that works throughout the world to help communities gain access to clean drinking water.Spotz has already proven she is up for an adventure. In 2006 she biked across the U.S. to benefit the American Lung Association in memory of her grandmother.“I’m always looking for new ways to challenge myself,” she says. “I love the mental challenge of any endurance sport.”For her latest endeavor, which started on July 22 and ended on August 21, Spotz took inspiration from Martin Strel, who swam 2,360 miles of the Mississippi River in 2002.Spotz had to walk the Allegheny’s first 27 miles, because the water was too shallow. For the next 325 miles, she swam for six to eight hours a day. The first three weeks were relatively peaceful, but during the last 70 miles she had to contend with a lot of boat traffic and minimal currents, which slowed her pace. She also scuffled with downed trees and shallow sections that banged up her knees.“My wetsuit was pretty rugged by the end of the month,” she says.Her friend James Hendershott followed her for safety and support in an inflatable kayak that was big enough to hold gear and food. Nights were spent camping on the Allegheny banks.Before setting off on the epic swim, the longest distance Spotz had previously swum was four miles. Despite a lack of experience and no training, her body adjusted quickly. She attributes her success to mental perseverance, something that is required to be able to stare into cloudy water eight hours a day for a month.“The first week there were some major endorphin highs and energy-depleting lows, but after that, my body easily adjusted,” she says. “I have this kind of animal drive. When I want something, I don’t see anything else. It’s a peaceful and fulfilling thing to know that your body can endure. People are not aware of what their bodies are capable of because life is so easy. I don’t think I am special. Anyone can do these things if their mind accepts the challenge.”To follow up the Allegheny, Spotz has an even bigger body of water in her sights. Next year she plans to row across the Atlantic Ocean as another benefit for Blue Planet. With a spirit for endurance and a heart for charity, it seems there is little to stand in her way.“It’s mind-boggling that 1.1 billion people right now don’t have access to clean drinking water,” says Spotz. “That’s the most basic human need.”Cycling SaviorWILL FRISCHKORNWith the lack of Lance and the shame of Landis, Americans had little to be excited about heading into this year’s Tour de France. But in stage 3, the red, white, and blue was given a day of exciting headlines thanks to Will Frischkorn, a 27-year-old utility rider on the outspoken, daily-tested anti-doping squad Garmin-Chipotle. Frischkorn, who grew up in Charleston, W.Va., and trained extensively as a high school student in Charlottesville, Va., was in 122nd place going into stage 3. But by the end of the day he was in third, the result of a gutsy performance that earned worldwide buzz and found him leading for more than 200 kilometers before just being edged out at the end by veteran French rider Samuel Dumoulin. Frischkorn, a strong all-around support rider, ended up helping two of his teammates finish in the Tour top 20. But for one day, he stood on the podium and was donned the day’s Most Aggressive Rider.“The Tour is the dream, and to be a part of a team that played an active role in the race was really exciting,” he says.Man on the RunMICHAEL WARDIANMichael Wardian spent the year dominating the professional ultra-running scene. The Arlington, Va.-based runner won three USATF titles, including the 50-mile Trail Championship and the 50K and 100K Road Championship titles. At the 50K in Crystal Mountain, Wash., he set a championship record with a 2:55:05. His performance at the 100K in Madison, Wis., earned him a spot on the World Team and a chance to compete for the U.S. at the 100K World Championships in Italy this month.The amazing thing about Wardian is not only his consistent winning (he hasn’t lost an ultra that he’s entered in over a year), but also his tireless running ethic. In addition to competing in a total of six ultras this year, he also ran 13 marathons—including two on consecutive days in March. He won the National Marathon in Washington, D.C., with a 2:24:59, and then he hopped on a plane to Tennessee and ran the Knoxville Marathon in 2:29:50, placing third after leading for 24 miles. This year in total he ran over 50 races of varying distance. Critics wonder how fast Wardian could be if he actually tried to take some proper recovery time, but he is more interested in just testing his limits.“I like to see how far I can push myself and see what I can accomplish,” he says. “People think it’s crazy, but now they’re not trying to curb what I’m doing as much because I’ve had good results. What works for me doesn’t work for everyone.”Wardian also likes an unconventional challenge. He previously held the fastest time for a marathon on a treadmill, and last year he set the record for running a marathon with a stroller—a feat he shares with his son, who was along for the ride at just 10 months old. Wardian’s only big disappointment this year came when he was trying to recapture the treadmill record. He was on a 2:18 pace for 22 miles, but he ended up in the hospital with exhaustion before he could finish.“I wasn’t taking in enough fluids,” he says. “You have to take your body seriously, so it was a good learning experience.”Next year Wardian, who works full-time as a ship broker for Potomac Marine International, will look to win the Marathon des Sables, the 150-mile stage race through the Sahara Desert, and the Comrades 54-mile ultra-marathon in South Africa. He’ll also be looking to defend his USATF championship titles. One thing that might decrease his race traveling is the birth of his second child this December.“I promised my wife I would scale it back,” he says. “But I like to show people that you can compete on an elite level with a full-time job and a family.”Best of the BarkleyBRIAN ROBINSONThe Barkley Marathon is ultrarunning’s underground nightmare. Heading into 2008, only six runners in 21 years had finished the 100-mile course that bushwhacks through the rugged mountains of Tennessee’s Frozen Head State Park. The 100-miler consists of five 20-mile loops and a total elevation change over 100,000 feet. Sections of the course are so steep that runners often have to pull themselves up by trees. Other sections are overgrown with thorn bushes. Then there’s the quirky sadism of race director Gary Cantrell, who makes runners tear pages from books left along the course to prove they’ve covered all 20 miles. Last year Cantrell put one of the books at the opening of a rattlesnake den. These collective obstacles get the best of some of the world’s toughest ultrarunners; many don’t make it past the first loop.But this year Brian Robinson became the seventh person to finish the Barkley. He also set a new course record—finishing in 55 hours and 42 minutes.The third time was the charm for Robinson. During his first Barkley attempt two years ago, he ran in the 60-mile “fun run” category and finished seven minutes past the cut-off time. Last year he was the only racer to start a fifth and final loop, but sleep deprivation forced him to call it quits.“I couldn’t move fast enough to stay awake,” he recalls. “I got into zombie stumble mode and had to quit a quarter of the way into the loop.”But this year Robinson learned from his mistakes and came into the race with a new strategy—sleep. He forced himself to take two hour-and-a-half naps, even when he wasn’t tired. The rest made him more efficient on the rugged course.“The sleep strategy was key, because I was able to go faster in the later loops,” Robinson says. “The time I lost was paid back with interest.”Six years ago Robinson left a high-paying job in Silicon Valley to have more time to pursue his endurance passion. In 2001 he became the first person to finish the Triple Crown of hiking, which included completing the Appalachian Trail, Pacific Crest Trail, and the Continental Divide Trail, a total of 7,400 miles, all in one year. He now seeks out some of the toughest ultra-marathons and endurance challenges.“I basically took a plan B life—left a high-stress job and walked away from a big paycheck,” he says. “I’m satisfying the wanderlust in me. I’m taking the path less traveled, and it’s making all the difference.”Paddling ProdigyLAUREN BURRESSAt just 12 years old, Lauren Burress already has her sights on the Olympics. This year the whitewater wunderkind from east Tennessee won the Freestyle and Slalom Kayaking Junior Nationals.Burress was drawn to freestyle paddling at age 6. She was on a whitewater rafting trip with her mom on the Elkhorn River in Kentucky, and her dad was paddling nearby with friends in play boats. During a break, Burress ran over to the kayakers and jumped into one of the boats with her dad’s friend—experiencing her first surfing hole. By age 8 she was running the Big South Fork River in Tennessee, and at 9 she participated in her first Teva Mountain Games.“We would get a lot of heat from people for letting her paddle the Big South Fork at such a young age,” says Lauren’s mom, Kathleen. “But we always had big groups of experienced people with us, and she easily progressed.”Not yet a teenager, she is already competing on the professional level. She recently finished second in the pro women’s category of a paddling comp in Glenwood Springs, Colo.“It’s a sport where you can be yourself,” says Burress, when asked what she likes about paddling. “I like that you can still progress at any level from beginner to expert.”In one competition this year, she was too good for her age. Her performance at the Slalom and Freestyle Junior Nationals qualified Burress to compete at the World Cup in Europe. But four days before she was supposed to get on a plane, she was notified that she had to be 15 to compete in the junior division.Burress, who just moved to paddle full-time in Colorado, will focus on pro categories next year, because—strangely—they don’t have a minimum age requirement like junior categories. She’s looking to compete in the U.S. Team Trials at Glenwood Springs in May. While it’s currently being debated whether freestyle paddling will be an Olympic event in London in 2012, Burress is keeping her fingers crossed.“I really want to be an Olympic medalist,” she says. “Hopefully freestyle will get in and that will work out.”
To access this article REGISTER NOWWould you like print copies, app and digital replica access too? SUBSCRIBE for as little as £5 per week. Would you like to read more?Register for free to finish this article.Sign up now for the following benefits:Four FREE articles of your choice per monthBreaking news, comment and analysis from industry experts as it happensChoose from our portfolio of email newsletters
Rahardjo allegedly bribed a Bakamla official with Rp 3.5 billion to win a bid for the procurement of a Backbone Coastal Surveillance System to advance the board’s maritime monitoring, called the Bakamla Integrated Information System.The total contract value for the project is reported to be around Rp 170 billion.Rahardjo purportedly gave the bribe to a Bakamla staff member, Ali Fahmi, through middleman Hardy Stefanus.He was also required to pay Rp 60 billion in restitution as he only used about Rp 70 billion of the total Rp 134 billion disbursed by the Bakamla for the procurement project.Rahardjo was charged under articles 2 and 18 of Law No. 31/1999, as amended by Law No. 20/2001 on corruption eradication, kompas.com reported. (Vny) Topics : Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) prosecutors have demanded a seven-year prison sentence for Rahardjo Pratjihno, the president director of telecommunications contractor PT CMI Teknologi, for his alleged involvement in the Maritime Security Board (Bakamla) bribery case.They also demand that he pay a fine of Rp 600 million (US$40,356).“[We] ask judges at the Central Jakarta Corruption Court to declare Rahardjo Pratjihno guilty of corruption,” the prosecutors said during a hearing on Friday.
The home at 7 Grange Place, Moggill.A FAMILY looking to downsize purchased this immaculate home with city views for $720,000.It was bought from a couple looking to buy acreage out west, with their own children about to leave the nest.Kym Saunders, of LJ Hooker — Brisbane West, said the buyers loved the location of the property, which was close to major schools, amenities, parks and transport.“She (the owner) loved the immaculate condition of the home … it was very much loved,” she said. The four-bedroom, elevated home at 7 Grange Place, Moggill, received three offers and was sold after negotiations between the parties. Inside the home at 7 Grange Place, Moggill.More from newsDigital inspection tool proves a property boon for REA website3 Apr 2020The Camira homestead where kids roamed free28 May 2019It was on the market for about a month. Features include a huge master bedroom with a large walk-in wardrobe and an ensuite with double-sized shower.The house has a designer kitchen, a games room, powder room, spacious study and alfresco entertaining area.With high ceilings, the home sits within a 700sq m fully fenced block. The home at 7 Grange Place, Moggill.Overall, Ms Saunders said the market was performing strongly, with the majority of buyers coming from the local area.She said they were also getting calls from interstate buyers.“Cities like Sydney have become ridiculously expensive and buyers are looking to Brisbane for value for money,” she said.The suburb of Moggill is popular with families.The majority of households contain professional couples with children.
“He has a history of travel fromJanuary 25 to 29, 2020 in Hongkong and Macau,” it added. The statement also added that the malevictim showed symptoms of coughing and immediately sought medical consultationupon his arrival in Capiz. The Provincial Health Office (PHO) herehas issued an official statement on Sunday after the province recorded itsfirst Person Under Investigation (PUI) of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus AcuteRespiratory (2019-nCoV ARD) Disease on Feb.1. “The PUI is a fifty-one-year maleresident of one of the municipalities of the Province of Capiz,”thestatement says. The health authorities of the provincerecommended that all individuals with a travel history from countries withconfirmed nCoV ARD cases should coordinate with their respective Local HealthBoards and must undergo a 14-day home quarantine upon arrival in the country./PN “Capizeños are advised to remaincalm, but be vigilant against the threats nCOV ARD,” the statement said. PHOTO COURTESY OF ABS-CBN NEWS “Currently, he is under quarantine inone of the hospitals in the City of Roxas and is in good condition,” thestatement further stated. According to the IPH, necessary specimen(Nasopharyngeal and Oropharyngeal) were successfully collected and were sentimmediately for laboratory confirmation to the Research Institute for TropicalMedicine (RITM) in Alabang, Muntinlupa City.
By Rob HinckleyMAQUOKETA, Iowa (Aug. 18) – The jubilation was apparent as Jake Morris slammed his open hand repeatedly on top of his car.The long season became worth it after his 15-lap B&D Pit Stop IMCA Northern SportMod feature win on Back to School Night at Maquoketa Speedway Saturday evening.“Wow, it has been such a long year so this makes it worth it,” Morris said in victory lane. “Our luck has been bad and I can’t say enough about my sponsors and crew for hanging in there.”Morris ran in the top three the entire race, taking the lead for good on lap eight and beating Gage Neal, Jason Bahrs, Austin Heacock and Tyler Soppe to the checkered flag.The race went nonstop until a caution flew after the white flag and the race was called complete.A record total of 129 race teams jammed into the pits and racing was completed just after 10 p.m.Matt Ryan always studies the IMCA Modified feature before his Andover Meat IMCA Late Model 25-lap finale. He decided to run the high groove to get to the front and then moved low, racing to the win.Bryce Garnhart kept his hot August going with another QCJeeps.com IMCA Modified 20-lap win. He held off a charging Jordan Hicks, Jeff Larson, Tyler Madigan and Ray Cox Jr.Greg Gill captured the 15-lap Ueland Auto IMCA Stock Car finale. Joe Bonney, David Brandies, John Oliver, Jr. and Donnie Louck followed.Daniel Wauter used the low line of the racing surface en route to his eighth IMCA Hobby Stock 12-lap victory. Kile Vohringer made a late charge for second, followed by Dakota Simonsen, Roger Winkers and Randy Byerly.
Ireland’s stalwart centre is desperate to get on with life after the British and Irish Lions, though, and certainly the furore over being dropped by head coach Warren Gatland on last year’s tour Down Under. Ireland open their RBS 6 Nations campaign by hosting Scotland in Dublin on Sunday before taking on Wales six days later. Press Association Wales boss Gatland was pilloried for dropping O’Driscoll for the Lions’ final Test in Australia before a 41-16 landslide victory to claim the series offered vindication. The row has rumbled on, though, with Gatland admitting last week he jokingly asked O’Driscoll to influence the Aviva Stadium crowd not to boo him. O’Driscoll remains unsure about a career in coaching but is quite clear he has no interest in any lingering Lions pantomime. “What happened, happened, no one can change it,” said the 35-year-old. “I don’t have any ill-will towards Warren. “When it was raw afterwards your emotions are a bit different. Time does heal all wounds and I don’t have any animosity towards him. “What I will look towards is just trying to be involved in a team that can potentially beat his team, but that’s next week. “The coaching thing at the moment doesn’t really float my boat. “Before Christmas I started thinking too much about the afterlife. There’s no rush. “I’ll just enjoy the Six Nations and hopefully the knock-out parts of the Heineken Cup. “Hopefully I can try to win some silverware, and once the season’s done and dusted and the boots are finally hung up, there will be plenty of time to think about what the next plan is. “I don’t want to look back in a year’s time and regret not having given this time everything. That’s why I’m focusing solely on rugby and all other thoughts are on the backburner.” Hailing boss Joe Schmidt as crucial to Ireland’s chances of a successful Six Nations, O’Driscoll admitted it is important the country develop home-grown frontline coaches, even if he does not eventually number among them. Lock Leo Cullen will step into the Leinster backroom next season, with O’Driscoll backing the former Ireland enforcer to flourish. “I think Joe’s brought a lot of his traits that we’ve seen over the years into this job,” said O’Driscoll. “That’s what got him promoted to this job. “But like all good coaches he’s always trying to evolve, he’s a big thinker of the game. “I don’t know anyone who would do more analysis than Joe Schmidt. He has an insatiable appetite for the game, you can see it in everything he does. “We have strict timelines to how long we spend on the park. You’ve got that time to get it right, so get it right. “That mentality switches into the players very quickly. “I think it’s important we get some Irish coaches, we have some great thinkers in the game, and Leo Cullen’s definitely one of them. “Physically he might not be in the condition he was a few years ago, but because he’s so smart and such a clever player, he identifies short cuts, and I think he’ll have an awful lot to offer from a coaching perspective.” O’Driscoll wrestled with retirement this time last season and decided against it. Reaffirming his commitment to quit in the summer come what may, the 128-cap centre revealed no torment over his future has cleared his mind for the tournament ahead. “I was really unsure last year and it was strange emotions,” said the former Ireland skipper. “It’s nice knowing you can empty the tank in this Six Nations knowing it will be the last. “From my own point of view it’s probably a little less stressful. “It’s probably easier to be a leader when you don’t have the captain’s armband than when you do have it, there’s less expected of you. “And when you’re not captain I think there is an extra onus on you to make sure you are helping out and you’re sharing that workload. “So I will always try to give Paul O’Connell a dig-out wherever I can, just take a little stress off him being the only voice.” Brian O’Driscoll has postponed all decisions about life after rugby until he retires at the end of the season.
The national finals of the 19th edition of the Milo Secondary School Basketball will dunk off today at the Indoor Sports Hall of the National Stadium, Surulere, Lagos.The draws for the championship were held yesterday at the match venue in both the male and female categories, which would see six schools battle for honours between today and Wednesday. In the female category, Government Secondary School, Numan, Adamawa State; Government Secondary School, Gboko, Benue State; St. Judeâ€™s Girls Secondary School, Amarata, Bayelsa State; Wesley Girls Secondary School, Yaba, Lagos State; Yejide Girlsâ€™ Grammar School, Ibadan, Oyo State; and Government Secondary School, Wuse, FCT, Abuja, will slug it out.The male category will see Government Secondary School, Karu, FCT, Abuja; Government Secondary School, Minna, Niger State; St. Augustineâ€™s Seminary Ezzamgbo, Ebonyi State; Greater Tomorrow International College, Yola, Adamawa State; and Greenlands Academy, Abeokuta, Ogun State vying for the top prize.The national finals promise to be captivating, as the best of teen basketball will be on display.Â Share this:FacebookRedditTwitterPrintPinterestEmailWhatsAppSkypeLinkedInTumblrPocketTelegram
UW cornerback Antonio Fenelus had an interception return for a touchdown as part of Wisconsin\’s 28-3 second half against Purdue.[/media-credit]WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. – Early on, it wasn’t pretty. But then again, that’s why they play four quarters.After a sloppy, sluggish first half, the Wisconsin Badgers (8-1, 4-1) recovered to take down the Purdue Boilermakers (4-5, 2-3) 34-13 Saturday afternoon at Ross-Ade Stadium behind a strong defensive effort and two touchdowns from running back Montee Ball.Despite an interception on a poorly thrown ball by quarterback Scott Tolzien on the Badgers’ first drive and a missed 40-yard field goal by kicker Phillip Welch on the next, Wisconsin, now ranked No.7 in the BCS standings, trailed only 10-6 at halftime. Purdue, meanwhile, took advantage late in the first quarter with a 23-yard scoring pass from quarterback Sean Robinson to receiver Antavian Edison. Robinson, a true freshman, made his first career start after starting quarterback Robert Marve was lost for the season with a knee injury. The Boilermakers were also without starting running back Ralph Bolden and All-Big Ten receiver Kevin Smith, both also out for the season with knee injuries.Once Welch connected from 44 yards out with 8:08 remaining in the second quarter, UW finally got on the board. Seven minutes later at the 1:00 mark, Purdue’s Carson Wiggs nailed a 37-yarder to put Purdue up 10-3. Yet, with all three of their timeouts remaining, the Badgers were able to drive 57 yards on seven plays and Welch hit a 38-yard field goal to end the half 10-6 in Purdue’s favor.“Obviously, a tale of two different halves,” UW head coach Bret Bielema said. “In the first half, we just weren’t characteristic of what we’ve been doing to have success. We came in at halftime, didn’t need any superhuman effort, just wanted guys to focus in on the details of playing winning football.”The Badgers seemingly calmed down during the halftime break, emerging a different team in the second half. On the first drive, Culmer St. Jean baited Robinson and intercepted a pass on third and five from PU’s 25. The Badgers’ middle linebacker took it to the 18, where a few plays later – after a fourth and one conversion – Tolzien found receiver Jared Abbrederis for a seven-yard touchdown reception. Wisconsin went up 13-10, and never looked back.With their defense finally getting solid pressure on Robinson, the Badgers forced a three-and-out on the next two drives. Then, after Tolzien found receiver Nick Toon streaking across the middle of the field for a 20-yard completion at the Purdue 31, running back Montee Ball took advantage of excellent blocking down the left side of the field for a 31-yard Wisconsin touchdown, which made the score 20-10. Starting running back John Clay ran the ball 12 times for 45 yards, but sat out most of the second half with a knee injury.“I knew Montee could step up, and he did a great job,” Clay said, adding that he has no doubts about playing next Saturday against the Indiana Hoosiers. “So, I told the coaches, just run it with him.”Ball finished with 127 yards and two touchdowns on 21 carries, while Tolzien threw for 130 yards, one touchdown and one interception on 13 for 19 passing. Wisconsin’s offense was able to take advantage of much-improved play by their offensive line, which looked fairly out of sync in the first half.“Us [running] backs, when you come here, the team’s going to put the load on your shoulders and you’ve got to be able to carry it” Ball said. “That’s what I feel like I did. The line did a great job of pushing them, and I just didn’t want to let them down.”After Purdue converted another field goal, this one from 35 yards, the score tightened at 20-13. The Badgers only managed one first down on their next drive before punting, and the Boilermakers looked to be driving before Mike Taylor picked off a deflected pass. The sophomore linebacker, playing without the knee brace he sported at Iowa, returned the ball 26 yards to the Purdue 14.From there, Ball scored from 15 yards out two plays later, and Wisconsin was up 27-13. Robinson began the next drive with an incompletion, and on second down with 8:54 remaining in the game, his pass was tipped once again and UW cornerback Antonio Fenelus intercepted and returned it 36 yards for a touchdown. That was the final score of the game, as the two teams traded possessions to end the game.“Antonio has really played good football for us,” Bielema said. “Him and Niles [Brinkley], as long as I’ve been the head coach, those guys are playing pretty good. They can go one side or the other. …These guys have been pretty balanced.”Both teams finished with 303 total yards, and Purdue actually possessed the ball for 30:56, slightly longer than Wisconsin’s 29:04. Yet, as it was the Badgers’ miscues that put them behind in the first half, it was the Boilermakers’ second half mistakes that ultimately lost them the game.“The guys never quit,” left guard John Moffitt said. “The guys fight to the end, and that’s what you need because the game’s not over until the last second ticks off the clock. I think guys understand that, which is really important.”
On Tuesday evening in Doheny Memorial Library, Professor and Wallis Annenberg Chair in Communication, Technology and Society Manuel Castells discussed his latest book Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age as part of Provost Elizabeth Garrett’s Writers Series that recognizes outstanding literary accomplishments at USC.Author · Professor Manuel Castells discussed the relationship between the internet and social uprisings at Doheny Memorial Library. – Austin Vogel | Daily Trojan The book examines the impact of the Internet and social media on populist revolts such as the Arab Spring and the Occupy Wall Street movement.“Throughout history, social movements have been the levers of social change,” Castells said. “They are not the heroes of history, necessarily, they can be the villains, but they are the makers of history.”Castells noted that while these social movements might take place in strikingly different contexts, they all have similar characteristics. Furthermore, these movements do not occur in isolation, such as how the uprising in Tunisia led to uprisings throughout the Arab world.“In all the movements there is one word repeated almost literally: dignity,” he said. “That is what we all want: to be respected as human beings.”Castells dismissed the idea that technology causes uprisings, arguing that such movements have occurred before the advent of the Internet and social media.Castells noted, however, that changes in technology have profound effects on a movement’s efficacy. He spoke about the role the Internet plays in modern social movements, specifically its ability to unite previously separate networks of people.“It is this multiplicity of networks that gives modern social movements their power,” Castells said.He noted they do not need a leader or centralized command because the individual networks can maintain their own members, which thus reduces the vulnerability of the movement.“The regime cannot go around and simply round up the usual suspects — first of all, because they are not usual, they are new — and second because no one knows who they are,” Castells said.He also stressed that the fragmentation of leadership protects a movement against the “internal dangers” of bureaucracy and stagnation. Such movements are also incredibly self-reflective because they contain so many distinct voices and opinions.Castells also spoke about the immense power of going viral, and how the Internet has transformed all movements into global movements. He mentioned the power of images in particular, and the crucial role YouTube plays in modern social movements. Images of brutality and solidarity are particularly powerful because they can evoke the emotions of outrage and hope, which he calls “the most powerful emotions according to neuroscience.”The ability to influence people’s emotions makes the message of such movements universal, rather than limited to a particular area or issue.“All these movements are local and global at the same time,” Castells said. “[The movements are] local because they arise out of local concerns, and global because they can immediately connect to other movements.”Toward the end of his talk, Castells focused on the “So What?” aspect of social movements. He said that while people can debate the outcomes of these movements, it is impossible to deny their impacts.“Take, for example, the case of Egypt,” he said. “In one month, it brought down the oldest dictatorship in [the region].”